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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate Kethuboth

Folio 111a

They shall be carried to Babylon, and there shall they be, until the day that I remember them, saith the Lord.1  And R. Zera?2  — That text1 refers3  to the vessels of ministry.4  And Rab Judah? — Another text also is available:3  I adjure you, O daughters of Jerusalem, by the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field, [that ye awaken not, nor stir up love,5  until it please]'.6  And R. Zera? — That7  implies that Israel shall not go up [all together as if surrounded] by a wall.8  And Rab Judah? — Another 'I adjure you'9  is written in Scripture. And R. Zera? — That text is required for [an exposition] like that of R. Jose son of R. Hanina who said: 'What was the purpose of those three adjurations?10  — One, that Israel shall not go up [all together as if surrounded] by a wall;8  the second, that whereby the Holy One, blessed be He, adjured Israel that they shall not rebel against the nations of the world; and the third is that whereby the Holy One, blessed be He, adjured the idolaters that they shall not oppress Israel too much'. And Rab Judah? — It is written in Scripture, That ye awaken not, nor stir up.11  And R. Zera? — That text is required for [an exposition] like that of R. Levi who stated: 'What was the purpose of those six adjurations?12  — Three for the purposes just mentioned and the others, that [the prophets] shall not make known the end,13  that [the people] shall not14 delay15  the end,13  and that they shall not reveal the secret16  to the idolaters'.

By the gazelles, and by the hinds of the field.17  R. Eleazar explained: The Holy One, blessed be He, said to Israel, 'If you will keep the adjuration, well and good; but if not, I will permit your flesh [to be a prey] like [that of] the gazelles and the hinds of the field'.

R. Eleazar said: Whoever is domiciled in the Land of Israel lives without sin, for it is said in Scripture, And the inhabitant shall not say, 'I am sick', the people that dwell therein shall be forgiven their iniquity.18  Said Raba19  to R. Ashi; We apply this [text]18  to those who suffer from disease.

R. Anan said; Whoever is buried in the Land of Israel is deemed to be20  buried under the altar; since in respect of the latter21  it is written in Scripture, At altar of earth thou shalt make unto me,22  and in respect of the former23  it is written in Scripture, And his laud doth make expiation for his people.24

'Ulla was in the habit of paying visits to the Land of Israel but came to his eternal rest25  outside the Land — [When people] came and reported this to R. Eleazar he exclaimed, 'Thou 'Ulla, shouldst die in an unclean land!'26  'His coffin', they said to him, 'has arrived'.27  'Receiving a man in his lifetime', he replied, 'is not the same as receiving him after his death'.

A certain man28  who fell under the obligation [of marrying]29  a sister-in-law30  at Be Hozae31  came to R. Hanina and asked him whether it was proper32  to go down there to contract with her levirate marriage. 'His brother', [R. Hanina] replied, 'married a heathen33  and died, blessed be the Omnipresent Who slew him, and this one would follow him!'

Rab Judah stated in the name of Samuel: As it is forbidden to leave the Land of Israel for Babylon so it is forbidden to leave

    Babylon34  for other countries. Both Rabbah and R. Joseph said: Even from Pumbeditha35  to Be Kubi.36

A man once moved from Pumbeditha to [settle in] Be Kubi and R. Joseph placed him under the ban.

A man once left Pumbeditha to [take up his abode at] Astunia,37  and he died.38  Said Abaye: 'If this young scholar wanted it, he could still have been alive'.39

Both Rabbah and R. Joseph stated: The fit40  persons of Babylon are received38  by the Land of Israel, and the fit40  ones of other countries are received41  by Babylon. In what respect?42  If it be suggested: In respect of purity of descent,43  surely [it may be objected,] did not the Master say, 'All countries are [like] dough44  towards the Land of Israel,45  and the Land of Israel is [like] dough towards Babylon'?46  — The fact, however, [is that the 'fit'47  are received] in respect of burial.48

Rab Judah said: Whoever lives in Babylon is accounted as though he lived in the Land of Israel; for it is said in Scripture,

    Ho, Zion, escape, thou that dwellest with the daughter of Babylon.49

Abaye stated: We have a tradition that Babel50  will not witness the sufferings51  [that will precede the coming] of the Messiah.52  He [also] explained it53  to refer54  to Huzal55  in Benjamin which would be named56  the Corner of Safety.57

R. Eleazar stated: The dead outside the Land58  will not be resurrected; for it is said in Scripture, And I will set glory59  in the land of the living,60  [implying] the dead of the land in which I have my desire61  will be resurrected, but the dead [of the land] in which I have no desire will not be resurrected.

R. Abba b. Memel objected: Thy dead shall live, my dead bodies shall arise;62  does not [the expression] 'Thy dead shall live' refer to the dead of the Land of Israel, and 'My dead bodies shall arise' to the dead outside the Land;63  while the text,64  And I will give glory65  in the land of the living60  was written of Nebuchadnezzar concerning whom the All-Merciful said, 'I will bring against them a king who is as swift as a stag'?66  — The other replied: Master, I am making an

    exposition of another Scriptural text: He that giveth breath unto the people upon it,67  and spirit to them that walk therein.68  But is it not written, My dead bodies shall arise?69  — That was written in reference to miscarriages.70  Now as to R. Abba b. Memel, what [is the application] he makes of the text,71  'He that giveth breath unto the people upon it'? — He requires it for [an exposition] like that of R. Abbahu who stated: Even a Canaanite bondwoman who [lives] in the Land of Israel is assured of a place in72  the world to come, [for in the context] here it is written, unto the people73  upon it,74  and elsewhere it is written, Abide ye here with75  the ass76  [which may be rendered]77  people that are like an ass'.78

And spirit to them that work therein74  [teaches], said R. Jeremiah b. Abba in the name of R. Johanan, that whoever walks four cubits in the Land of Israel is assured of a place79  in the world to come. Now according to R. Eleazar,80  would not the righteous outside the Land81  be revived?82  — R. Elai replied: [They will be revived] by rolling [to the Land of Israel]. R. Abba Sala the Great demurred: Will not the rolling be painful to the righteous? — Abaye replied: Cavities will be made for them underground.

Thou shalt carry me out of Egypt and bury me in their burying-place.83  Karna remarked: [There must be here] some inner meaning. Our father Jacob well knew that he was a righteous man in every way, and, since the dead outside the Land will also be resurrected, why did he trouble his sons?84  Because he might possibly be unworthy to [roll through] the cavities.85

Similarly you read in Scripture, And Joseph took an oath of the children of Israel, [saying … ye shall carry up my bones from hence],86  and R. Hanina remarked: [There is here] an inner meaning. Joseph well knew himself to be a righteous man in every way, and, since the dead outside the Land87  will be revived, why did he trouble his brothers [with a journey of] four hundred parasangs? Because he might possibly be unworthy to [roll through] the cavities.88

His brothers89  sent [the following message] to Rabbah:90  'Jacob well knew that he was a righteous man in every way' etc.91  Ilfa added to this the following incident. A man was once troubled on account of [his inability to marry] a certain woman92  and desired to go down [to her country]; but as soon as he heard this91  he resigned himself to his unmarried state93  until the day of his death. Although you are a great scholar [you will admit that] a man who studies on his own cannot be on a par with a man who learns from his master. And perchance you might think that you have no master [good enough for you here, we may inform you that] you have one, and he is94  R. Johanan. If you are not coming up, however, beware [we advise you] of three things. Do not sit too long, for [long] sitting aggravates one's abdominal troubles;95  do not stand for a long time, because [long] standing is injurious to the heart; and do not walk too much, because [excessive] walking is harmful to the eyes. Rather [spend] one third [of your time] in sitting, one third in standing and one third in walking. Standing is better than sitting when one has nothing to lean against.

'Standing'! How can this be imagined in view of the statement that '[long] standing is injurious to the heart'? — What was meant in fact was this:96  Better than sitting

To Part b

Original footnotes renumbered.
  1. Jer. XXVII, 22.
  2. How could he act against this text?
  3. Lit., 'is written'.
  4. Enumerated previously in the context (Jer. XXVII, 19ff).
  5. For the Land of Israel.
  6. Cant. II, 7. Before it pleased God to bring them back to their Land they must patiently remain in Babylon.
  7. The text of Cant. II, 7.
  8. Individuals, however, may well go there. Cur. edd., read [H] MS.M., [H], 'like a wall'. So also Emden and Strashun.
  9. Cant. III, 5, which refers to individuals.
  10. The two mentioned (Cant. II, 7, Ill, 5) and the one in Cant. V, 8.
  11. Cant. II, 7, [H], the repetition of the root [H] implies (a) all Israel together and (b) individuals.
  12. Each of the three adjurations (cf. supra n. 10) is repeated (cf. supra n. 11).
  13. Of the exile. The beginning of the Messianic era.
  14. By their misdeeds.
  15. [H] (rt. [H] 'to be far'). Aliter; Shall not regard the end (of the exile) as being too far off, and so lose hope (Maharsha). Var. [H] (rt. [H] 'to press'), 'force by excessive prayer'.
  16. Of intercalation Aliter: The secret of the reasons underlying the commandments in the Torah (Rashi).
  17. Cant. II, 7.
  18. Isa. XXXIII, 24.
  19. Read with [H] 'Rabina', Yalkut: R. Abba, since Raba and R. Ashi were not contemporaries.
  20. Lit., 'as if'.
  21. Lit., 'here'.
  22. Ex. XX, 21.
  23. Lit., 'there'.
  24. Deut. XXXII, 43. The renderings of A.V., R.V. and A.J.V. respectively differ from each other and from the one given here.
  25. Lit., 'his soul rested'.
  26. The italicized words are a quotation from Amos VII. 17.
  27. In the Land of Israel for burial.
  28. Who lived in the Land of Israel.
  29. Lit. 'that fell to him'.
  30. V. Glos. s.v. yibbum.
  31. V. supra p. 504, n. 5.
  32. Lit., 'what is it?'
  33. [H] var. [H]. Apparently a term of contempt for the Jewish woman of Be Hozae (Golds.).
  34. Which was a centre of religion and learning.
  35. V. supra p. 325, n. 5.
  36. It is forbidden to move one's abode. [H] was the name of a village in the vicinity of Pumbeditha' (Rashi Kid. 70b); 'the fort of P.' (Jast.).
  37. [H] a place near Pumbeditha. [Identified by Obermeyer (p. 229) with Piruz Shabur.]
  38. So MS.M. Cur. edd. omit the waw.
  39. His death was due to his departure from Pumbeditha.
  40. [H], either (a) of pure and legitimate descent or (b) worthy and righteous. V. infra n. 8.
  41. This is explained anon.
  42. Are the 'fit … received'.
  43. Cf. supra note 7 (a), sc. that such persons may marry into any pure families of the Land of Israel and Babylon respectively.
  44. Opp. to 'fine flour', sc. a mixed mass the ingredients of which cannot be determined. Metaph. for impurity or illegitimacy of descent.
  45. The families of the latter place would not allow, therefore, any person from the former to marry any of their members.
  46. Kid. 69b, 71a, which proves that as regards purity of descent Babylon stands higher than the Land of Israel. How then could it be said that only the 'fit persons of Babylon are received by the Land of Israel'? On the causes of the lower standard of genealogical purity in the Land of Israel v. Halevy's suggestion quoted in Kid., Sonc. ed. p. 350, n. 6.
  47. Cf. supra note 7 (b).
  48. Only the worthy men of Babylon and other countries should be allowed burial in the Land of Israel and Babylon respectively. Unworthy men should not be admitted to the former whose soil was sacred or to the latter which scholars and saints had made their home (cf. supra note 1).
  49. Zech. II, 11.
  50. [H], usually rendered 'Babylon', but v. infra notes 6 and 7.
  51. Or 'travail'.
  52. [H]; 'but the more correct reading is [H] (Moore, G.F., Judaism II 361, n. 2). [H] 'frequent in modern Christian books is fictitious' (loc. cit.). The 'sufferings' or 'travail' are more fully described in Sanh. 97b, Sonc. ed. p. 654. These are the 'throes of mother Zion which is in labor to bring forth the Messiah — without metaphor, the Jewish people' (Moore, loc. cit. text).
  53. The tradition as to the immunity of Babel.
  54. Not, as might be assumed, to the well known Babylon (cf. supra note 2).
  55. [H], a village to the north of Jerusalem between Tel Al-Ful and Nob 'the city of the priests'. It was known by many names including that of [H] (v. Horowitz, I.S., Palestine, p. 73. nn 3ff, s.v. [H]). Neubauer, (Geogr. p. 152) describes it as an old fortress in Palestine (v. Jast.). There was also a Huzal in Babylonia between Nehardea and Sura. Cf. Sanh. 19a, Sonc. ed. p. 98, n. 3 and Berliner, Beitr. z. Geogr. p. 32.
  56. [H], lit., 'and they would call it'. The pronoun according to Rashi refers to the 'days of the Messiah', but this is difficult.
  57. The noun [H] is regarded here as the Hof. of [H] 'to save'.
  58. Of Israel.
  59. [H]. Cf. infra notes13  and 18.
  60. Ezek. XXVI, 20.
  61. [H] containing the three letters of [H] (cf. supra note II). God's care for Palestine is taken for granted. Cf. e.g., A land which the Lord thy God careth for; the eyes of the Lord thy God are always upon it (Deut. XI, 12).
  62. Isa. XXVI, 19.
  63. Of Israel.
  64. Lit., 'and what'.
  65. V. supra note II.
  66. [H] also means 'stag' (cf. supra note 11).
  67. The land of Israel.
  68. Isa. XLII, 5.
  69. Isa. XXVI, 19.
  70. Even they will be resurrected but only in the Land of Israel.
  71. Lit., 'that'.
  72. Lit., 'daughter of'.
  73. [H].
  74. Isa. XLII, 5.
  75. [H].
  76. Gen. XXII, 5.
  77. The consonants [H] being the same (cf. supra nn. 7 and 9.)
  78. Sc. slaves who are considered the property of the master. As the 'people' spoken of in Isa. XLII, 5, are assured of a place in the world to come so are the 'people' referred to in Gen. XXII, 5. Moore describes this as 'a specimen of exegetical whimsicality, rather than an eccentricity of opinion' (Judaism, II, 380).
  79. Lit., 'son of'.
  80. Who based his view on Ezek. XXVI, 20, supra.
  81. Of Israel.
  82. But this, surely. is most improbable.
  83. Gen. XLVII, 30.
  84. To carry him to Canaan?
  85. Var. lec., 'because he did not accept the suffering of the pain of rolling through the cavities' (Yalkut and [H]).
  86. Gen. L, 25.
  87. Of Israel.
  88. V. p. 717, n. 19.
  89. Who lived in Palestine and desired him to join them.
  90. Rabbah b. Nahmani who wad domiciled in Pumbeditha in Babylonia (cf. supra p. 325, n. 5).
  91. V. Karna's remark supra.
  92. Who refused to leave her home country outside Palestine to join him in Palestine.
  93. Lit 'he rolled by himself'.
  94. Lit., 'and who is he?'
  95. Pl. of [H], 'nethermost', hence 'piles'.
  96. Lit., 'but'.
Kethuboth Directory / Tractate List

Kethuboth 111b

with nothing to lean against is standing with something to lean against.

And thus [his brothers]1  proceeded to say [in their message]: — 'Isaac and Simeon and Oshaia were unanimous in their view that2  the halachah is in agreement with R. Judah in [respect of the mating of] mules'. For it was taught: If a mule was craving for sexual gratification it must not be mated with a horse or an ass3  but [only with one of] its own species.4

R. Nahman b. Isaac stated; By 'Isaac'5  was meant6  R. Isaac Nappaha. By 'Simeon',5  R. Simeon b. Pazzi — others say: Resh Lakish;7  and by 'Oshaia',8  R. Oshaia8 Berabbi.9

R. Eleazar said; The illiterate10  will not be resurrected, for it is said in Scripture, The dead will not live etc.11  So it was also taught: The dead will not live.11  As this might [be assumed to refer] to all, it was specifically stated, The lax12  will not rise,11  [thus indicating] that the text speaks only of such a man as was lax in the study of the words of the Torah.13  Said R. Johanan to him:14  it is no satisfaction to their Master15  that you should speak to them in this manner. That text16 was written of a man who was so lax as17  to worship idols. 'I', the other18  replied, 'make an exposition [to the same effect] from another text. For it is written in Scripture, For thy dew is as the dew of light, and the earth shall bring to life the dead.19  him who makes use of the 'light' of the Torah will the 'light' of the Torah revive, but him who makes no use of the light of the Torah20  the light of the Torah will not revive'. Observing, however, that he21  was distressed, he18  said to him, 'Master, I have found for them22  a remedy in the Pentateuch: But ye that did cleave unto the Lord your God are alive every one of you this day;23  now is it possible to 'cleave' to the divine presence concerning which it is written in Scripture, For the Lord thy God is a devouring fire?24  But [the meaning is this:] Any man who marries his daughter to a scholar, or carries on a trade on behalf of scholars,25  or benefits scholars from his estate is regarded by Scripture26  as if he had cleaved to the divine presence.27  Similarly you read in Scripture, To love the Lord thy God, [to hearken to His voice,] and to cleave unto Him.28  Is it possible for a human being to 'cleave' unto the divine presence? But [what was meant is this:] Any man who marries his daughter to a scholar, or carries on a trade for scholars, or benefits scholars from his estate is regarded by Scripture as if he had cleaved to the divine presence.

R. Hiyya b. Joseph said: A time will come when the just will break through [the soil] and rise up in Jerusalem, for it is said in Scripture, And they will blossom out of the city like grass of the earth,29  and by 'city' only Jerusalem can be meant for it is said in Scripture, For I will defend this city.30

R. Hiyya b. Joseph further stated: The just in the time to come will rise [apparelled] in their own clothes.31  [This is deduced] a minori ad majus from a grain of wheat. If a grain of wheat that is buried32  naked sprouts up with many coverings how much more so the just who are buried in their shrouds.

R. Hiyya b. Joseph further stated: There will be a time when the Land of Israel will produce baked cakes of the purest quality33  and silk34  garments, for it is said in Scripture, There will be a rich35 cornfield36  in the land.37

Our Rabbis taught: There will be a rich cornfield in the Land upon the top of the mountains.37  [From this] it was inferred that there will be a time when wheat will rise as high as a palm-tree and will grow on the top of the mountains. But in case you should think that there will be trouble in reaping it, it was specifically said in Scripture, its fruit shall rustle like Lebanon;37  the Holy One, blessed be He, will bring a wind from his treasure houses which He will cause to blow upon it. This will loosen its fine flour and a man will walk out into the field and take a mere handful38  and, out of it, will [have sufficient provision for] his own, and his household's maintenance.

With the kidney-fat of wheat.39  [From this] it was inferred that there will be a time when a grain of wheat will be as large as the two kidneys of a big bull. And you need not marvel at this, for a fox once made his nest In a turnip and when [the remainder of the vegetable] was weighed, it was found [to be] sixty pounds in the pound weight of Sepphoris.40

It was taught: R. Joseph41  related: It once happened to a man42  at Shihin43  to whom his father had left three twigs of mustard that one of these split and was found to contain nine kab of mustard, and its timber sufficed to cover a potter's hut.

R. Simeon b. Tahlifa44  related. Our father left us a cabbage stack and we45  ascended and descended it by means of a ladder.46

And of the blood of the grape thou drankest foaming wine.47  It was inferred: The world to come is not like this world. In this world there is the trouble of harvesting and treading [of the grapes], but in the world to come a man will bring one grape48  on a wagon or a ship, put it in a corner of his house and use its contents as [if it had been] a large wine cask, while its timber49  would be used to make fires for cooking.50  There will be no grape that will not contain thirty kegs51  of wine, for it is said is Scripture, And of the blood of the grape thou drankest foaming wine,52  read not 'foaming'53  but homer.54

When R. Dimi came55  he made the following statement: What is the implication in the Scriptural text, Binding his foal56  unto the vine?57  There is not a vine in the Land of Israel that does not require [all the inhabitants of] one city58  to harvest it; And his ass's colt59  into the choice60 vine,57  there is not even a wild61  tree in the Land of Israel that does not produce a load of [fruit for] two she-asses.62  In case you should imagine that it contains no wine, it was explicitly said in Scriptures, He washes his garments in wine.57  And since you might say that it is not red it was explicitly stated, And of the blood of the grape thou drankest foaming wine.63  And in case you should say that it does not cause intoxication it was stated, His vesture.64  And in case you should think that it is tasteless it was expressly stated, His eyes shall be red65  with wine,66  any palate that will taste it says, 'To me, to me'.67  And since you might say that it is suitable for young people but unsuitable for old, it was explicitly stated And his teeth white with milk;66  read not, 'teeth white'68  but 'To him who is advanced in years'.69

In what [sense] is the plain meaning of the text70  to be understood?71  — When R. Dimi came72  he explained: The congregation of Israel said to the Holy One, blessed be He, 'Lord of the Universe, wink to me with Thine eyes,73  which [to me will be] sweeter than wine, and shew74  me Thy teeth which will be sweeter than milk'.73  [This interpretation] provides support for R. Johanan who said; The man who [by smiling affectionately] shews75  his teeth to his friend is better than one who gives bins milk to drink, for it is said in Scriptures, And his teeth white with milk,70  read not 'teeth white' but 'shewing the teeth'.76

R. Hiyya b. Adda77  was the Scriptural tutor of the young children of Resh Lakish. [On one occasion] he took a three days' holiday78  and did not come [to teach the children]. 'Why', the other asked hiss when he returned, 'did you take a holiday?' 'My father', he replied, 'left me one espalier79  and on the first day I cut from it three hundred clusters [of grapes], each cluster yielding one keg. On the second day I cut three hundred clusters, each two of which yielded one keg. On the third day I cut three hundred clusters, each three of which yielded one keg, and so I renounced my ownership of more than one half of it'. 'If you had not taken a holiday [from the Torah]', the other told him, 'it would have yielded much more'.80

Rami b. Ezekiel once paid a visit to Bene-berak81  where he saw goats grazing under fig-trees while honey was flowing from the figs, and milk ran from them, and these mingled with each other. 'This is indeed', he remarked, '[a land] flowing with milk and honey'.82

R. Jacob b. Dostai related: From Lod83  to Ono84  [is a distance of about] three miles.85  Once I rose up early in the morning and waded [all that way] up to my ankles in honey of the figs.

Resh Lakish said: I myself saw the flow of the milk and honey of Sepphoris86  and it extended [over an area of] sixteen by sixteen miles.

Rabbah b. Bar Hana said: I saw the flow of the milk and honey in all the Land of Israel

- To Next Folio -

Original footnotes renumbered.
  1. V. nn. 4-5.
  2. Lit., 'said one thing'.
  3. An act which is contrary to the law forbidding the hybridization of heterogeneous animals.
  4. Tosef. Kil. I, Hul. 79a.
  5. Referred to in the message supra
  6. Lit., 'this'.
  7. Sc. R. Simeon b. Lakish.
  8. MS.M., Hoshaia.
  9. Or 'Berebi'. A title of uncertain meaning. It denotes a scholar of any famous college or a qualified Rabbi who remained at college and acted as tutor to senior students. Cf. Mak. 5b, Sonc. ed. p. 25, n. 4 and Naz., Sonc. ed. p. 64, n. 1.
  10. [H] pl of 'Am ha-'arez v. Glos.
  11. Isa. XXVI, 14.
  12. [H] cf. [H] 'to be or make lax'. A.V and R.V. 'deceased'; R.V. marg. and A.J.V., 'shades'.
  13. Sc. the illiterate (v. supra n. 9).
  14. A. Eleazar.
  15. God Who created all beings even the illiterate.
  16. Isa. XXVI, 14.
  17. Lit., 'who makes himself lax'.
  18. R. Eleazar.
  19. Isa. XXVI, 19.
  20. Sc. the illiterate who does not engage in the study of the Torah.
  21. R. Johanan.
  22. The illiterate.
  23. Deut. IV, 4, emphasis on 'cleave'.
  24. Ibid. 24.
  25. Thus enabling them to devote their time to study. Aliter. Assigns them a share in his business as sleeping partners. V. Sanh., Sonc. ed. p. 671, n. 4.
  26. Lit 'Scripture brings up on him'.
  27. The illiterate (v. supra p. 719. n. 19) need not, therefore, be in despair since, by practising any of these alternatives, they also will be included among the resurrected.
  28. Deut. XXX, 20.
  29. Ps. LXXII, 16.
  30. Referring to Jerusalem. II Kings XIX, 34.
  31. Which they wore during their lifetime (J.T. cited by Tosaf. s.v. [H] a.l.). The noun in the present context apparently refers to the shrouds (v. Tosaf. loc. cit.) and this may also be the opinion of one authority in J.T. (cf. Marginal Glosses to text.).
  32. Sown.
  33. Cf. Rashi and Jast. [H], 'a brand of white flour' or 'a white and delicate bread'. (V. infra p. 721, nn. 2 and 3).
  34. Or 'woollen'.
  35. Heb. [H] analogous to [H] (Gen. XXXVII, 3) (E.V. of many colours).
  36. Heb. [H] signifies also 'purity'.
  37. Ps. LXXII, 16.
  38. [H] (cf. supra n. 2).
  39. Deut. XXXII, 14.
  40. Cf. supra p. 410, n. 6.
  41. Read with MS.M. 'R. Jose'.
  42. Halafta of Sepphoris.
  43. A town near Sepphoris.
  44. MS.M. and others (v. Wilna Gaon), 'Halafta'.
  45. In order to gather its leaves.
  46. [H]. MS.M., [H], 'on steps as on a ladder'.
  47. Deut. XXXII, 14.
  48. Aliter: 'Stalk of grapes' (Jast.).
  49. The stalk of the grape. V. also p. 721, n. 15 Aliter: the wood of the cask which the husk had superseded (Maharsha).
  50. Lit., 'under the dish'.
  51. Each measuring one se'ah (v. infra n. 5).
  52. Deut. XXXII, 14.
  53. [H].
  54. [H], the consonants of the two being identical. A homer = thirty se'ah.
  55. From Palestine to Babylon.
  56. [H], absol. [H] (v. infra n. 10)
  57. Gen. XLIX, II.
  58. Heb. [H] (v. supra n. 8).
  59. [H], absol. [H] 'she-ass'.
  60. [H], v. infra n. 13).
  61. [H], analogous to [H], the [H] in [H] (v. supra n. 12) being read as [H] (cf. Maharsha).
  62. V. supra n. 11. The number 'two' is perhaps derived from [H] (in [H]) which is taken as the pl. const. of [H] and signifies no less than two.
  63. Deut. XXXII, 14. Read with MS.M. and [H], And his vesture in the blood of grapes, which is the conclusion of Gen. XLIX, 11, the text of the present exposition.
  64. [H] derived from the rt. [H], 'to incite', 'agitate'.
  65. [H] (v. infra n. 19).
  66. Gen. XLIX 12.
  67. [H] (v. supra n. 17) is expounded as, 'the palate (will say:) To me, to me'.
  68. [H]
  69. [H] lit., to a son of years'. [H] 'white' also means 'to a son', [H] 'teeth' may also mean, by a change of vowels 'years'.
  70. Gen. XLIX. 12
  71. Lit. 'is written'.
  72. From Palestine to Babylon
  73. [H] (cf. supra p. 722. nn. 17 and 19) is again read as [H], but [H] is regarded as analogous to the rt. [H] 'to laugh', 'to smile affectionately', facial movements which involve the eyes and the teeth.
  74. V. infra note 6 and text.
  75. Lit., 'makes white' (cf. supra note 4).
  76. Lit., 'whitening of the teeth' (cf. supra l.c ).
  77. [MS.M Abba; v. supra 8b].
  78. Lit., 'he relaxed'.
  79. Or 'a vine trained to an espalier'.
  80. Sc. the progressive daily decline of the yield was due to the corresponding increase in the number of days in which he failed to return to his sacred duty of teaching his pupils the word of God.
  81. One of the cities in the tribe of Dan (Josh XIX, 45); now the village Ibn Ibrak, north east of Jaffa (v. Horowitz, I.S., Palestine s.v.)
  82. Cf. e.g.. Ex. III, 8, Num. XIII, 27.
  83. Or Lydda, the Roman Diospolis, W.N.W. of Jerusalem.
  84. Modern Kafr Annah, between Jaffa and Lydda (v. supra note 2).
  85. The actual distance is rather seven miles (v. Horowitz, op. cit., s.v. ubut n. 1).
  86. V. supra p. 410. n. 6.

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