Because of accounts.1 Said Abaye to him: And are accounts of a religious nature forbidden?2 Surely R. Hisda and R. Hamnuna both said: Accounts of a religious nature, one is allowed to calculate them on Sabbath; and R. Eleazar said: One may assign charity to the poor on Sabbath; and R. Jacob said [that] R. Johanan said: One may go to synagogues and to schoolhouses to watch over public affairs3 on Sabbath; and R. Jacob the son of Idi said [that] R. Johanan said: One may do any work to save a life4 on Sabbath; and R. Samuel the son of Nahmani said [that] R. Jonathan said: One may go to theatres and circuses5 to watch over public affairs on Sabbath; and [a scholar] of the school of Menashia taught: One may negotiate about the girls to be betrothed on Sabbath6 and about a boy to teach him the book7 and to teach him a trade? — But, said R. Zera, it has been prohibited8 lest he might slaughter a fowl.9 Said Abaye to him: But if this were so, then the Day of Atonement which fell on the second day of the week should be postponed10 for fear11 lest he might slaughter a fowl?12 — There,13 that [he has to prepare only] for himself he is not troubled [so much],14 [but] here,15 that [he has to prepare] for others,16 he is troubled.17 Or: there, he has an interval,18 [but] here, he has no interval.19 Now that you have come so far,20 the eve of Sabbath21 also is prohibited22 for fear lest he might slaughter a fowl.23
The question was asked:24 [Does the Mishnah mean:] A maiden is married on the fourth day [of the week], and the intercourse takes place on the fourth day, and we are not afraid that he might be pacified?25 Or perhaps [the meaning is] a maiden is married on the fourth day [of the week], and the intercourse takes place on the fifth day26 because we are afraid that he might be pacified? — Come and hear: Bar-Kappara taught: A maiden is married on the fourth day [of the week] and the intercourse takes place on the fifth day26 because on it [the fifth day] the blessing for the fishes was pronounced.27 A widow is married on the fifth day [of the week] and the intercourse takes place on the sixth day28 because on it [the sixth day] was pronounced the blessing for man.29 [We thus see that] the reason is on account of the blessing, but as to [his] being pacified we are not afraid. If so,30 [in the case of] a widow also the intercourse should take place on the fifth day [of the week], because on it [the fifth day] was pronounced the blessing for the fishes?31 — The blessing for man is better for him.32 Or on account of 'they have watched,'33 for it has been taught: Why did they34 say [that] a widow is married on the fifth day [of the week] and the intercourse takes place on the sixth day? Because, if you will say that the intercourse should take place on the fifth day, in the morning35 he will rise and go to his work;36 therefore the Sages watched over the welfare37 of the daughters of Israel that he should rejoice with her38 three days, [namely] on the fifth day of the week,39 on the eve of Sabbath40 and [on] Sabbath.41 What is the difference between 'the blessing' and 'they have watched'?42 The difference is this:43 [in the case of] a man of leisure,44 or [in the case] when a festival falls on the eve of Sabbath.45
Bar-Kappara expounded: The work of the righteous46 is greater than the work47 of heaven and earth, for in [regard to] the creation of heaven and earth it is written, Yea, My hand hath laid the foundation, of the earth, and My right hand hath spread out the heavens,48 while in [regard to] the work of the hands of the righteous it is written, The place which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, O Lord, the sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established.49 Replied50 one Babylonian, and R. Hiyya [was] his name: [It is written.] And the dry land his hands formed?51 — It is [to be] written, 'His hand'.52 But it is written, they formed?53 — Said R. Nahman b. Isaac: 'His fingers formed,'54 as it is written. When I behold Thy heavens, the work of Thy fingers, the moon and the stars which Thou hast established.55
An objection was raised: [It is written,] The heavens declare the glory of God, and the work of His hands the firmament shows?56 — Thus he said:57 The handiwork58 of the righteous, who shews [it]?59 The firmament. And what is it? Rain.60
Bar-Kappara [also] expounded: What [is the meaning of what] is written. And thou shalt have a peg among thy implements?61 Do not read,62 thy implements,63 but 'upon thy ear';64 [this means to say] that if a man hears an unworthy thing65
Original footnotes renumbered.
- If he will consummate the marriage in the night following the Sabbath he will give a dinner in the evening and he will make accounts (in his mind) on Sabbath as to the cost of that festive meal.
- I.e., is it forbidden to make calculations for a religious purpose on Sabbath?
- Lit., 'the affairs of many'.
- Lit., 'one removes a person' from under debris. The meaning is: One may do any work on Sabbath to save a life.
- Theatres and circuses were also places of general assemblies. in the same way public meetings were also held in synagogues and schoolhouses.
- I.e., one may negotiate the betrothal of them on Sabbath.
- I.e., the book, the Bible.
- Lit., 'a preventive measure'. To have the first intercourse in the night following the Sabbath.
- Lit., 'the child of a fowl', that is a young fowl. There is also the reading [H] 'on it' i.e., on Sabbath for [H]. He would be so busy thinking of the festive meal on Sabbath night that he might forget that it was Sabbath and slaughter a fowl for the dinner in the evening.
- For one day; v. Rashi.
- 'As a preventive measure'.
- On Sabbath, since he would be busy thinking of the preparations for the meal on Sunday, which would be the eve of the Day of Atonement. On the eve of the Day of Atonement it is a religious duty to have a festive meal.
- In the case of the Day of Atonement.
- And he will not forget that it is Sabbath and he will not slaughter a fowl on Sabbath.
- In the case of the wedding-feast on Sabbath night.
- For the guests of the evening.
- And he might forget that it is Sabbath and he might slaughter a fowl on Sabbath.
- Sabbath night and Sunday morning. He does not have the important meal before midday or later on the day of the eve of the Atonement Day.
- The wedding-dinner would take place on Sabbath night as soon as Sabbath is out.
- To this result, namely that he must not perform the first intercourse in the night following the Sabbath because he might profane the Sabbath by slaughtering a fowl on Sabbath.
- Friday night.
- To have the first intercourse.
- On Friday evening, after Sabbath had already begun.
- Lit., 'it was asked by them'.
- Lit., 'cooling off to the (his) mind.' That is, if he has intercourse on Wednesday and he has reason to complain as to virginity, his anger might cool off by Thursday morning and he might not go on Thursday to the court of justice; v. supra 2a.
- I.e., Wednesday evening, which belongs to the fifth day.
- Lit., said (by God).' Cf. Gen. I, 20-23, especially 22.
- Thursday evening. v. n. 13.
- Cf. Gen. I, 26-28, especially 28.
- If the reason is on account of the blessing.
- It means this: If the reason is the blessing, why should not intercourse, in the case of a widow, take place on the same day as the marriage, namely on the fifth day? And on the fifth day there was the blessing for the fishes. And if that blessing is good enough for a maiden it should be good enough for a widow.
- For Bar Kappara. He considered the blessing for man a stronger reason. In the case of a maiden it is different, as, if her intercourse should take place on Friday, we should he afraid that he might be appeased by Monday, the first court-day after Friday. 'Therefore the blessing for the fishes has to suffice in the case of the maiden.
- Shakedu, v. supra pp. 2 and 8. The ordinance that in the case of a widow the intercourse should take place on Friday was made in the interests of the daughters of Israel.
- The Sages.
- The next morning. In case of a widow the marriage festivities last only one day. V. infra 7a bottom.
- Lit., 'he rises unto his trade (work) and goes his way. That is, he walks out of the house and leaves the whole wedding atmosphere behind him. This had to be prevented.
- Lit., 'ordinance (for the welfare).'
- With the widow-bride.
- The day of the marriage.
- Friday, the day of the intercourse.
- The religious day of rest.
- What is the difference between these two reasons?
- Lit., 'there is between them.'
- Lit., 'an idle man.' 'They have watched' would not apply to a man of leisure, as he need not go to work next day. But the intercourse would have to take place on Friday if the reason was 'the blessing'.
- In which case Friday is a religious day of rest, and he would not go to work. But the reason of 'the blessing' would still operate for intercourse on Friday.
- Pious men.
- The creation.
- Isa. XLVIII, 13. There 'My hand' is written.
- Ex. XV, 17. In regard to the sanctuary, which is the work of the hands of pious men, 'Thy hands' is written.
- I.e., objected.
- Ps XCV, 5.
- [The kethib in some texts is [H] ('his hand').]
- [In the plural. so that the subject 'hand' must also be in the plural.]
- 'Fingers' is implied as subject.
- Ps. VIII, 4.
- Ps. XIX, 2. [Thus we have 'hands' written also in connection with creation.]
- Thus the Psalmist meant.
- Lit., 'the work of their hands.'
- Who tells them, announces them?
- Rain comes because the pious pray for it. The handiwork of the righteous is called the 'work of His hands', because in the rain the work of God and the work of the righteous meet. The rain is the work of God, but it comes as the result of the good deeds of the pious, whose prayers God fulflls.
- Deut. XXIII, 14.
- [In the sense of 'render'.]
- From [H] 'implement, tool'.
- As if from [H] 'ear'.
- Lit., 'a thing (or, a word) that is not worthy', not fit to be heard.
he shall plug his finger1 into his ears. And this is the same that R. Eleazar said: Why do the fingers of man resemble pegs? Why?2 Shall I say because they are divided?3 [Surely] each one has been made for its own purpose!4
with the opening,25 and it is forbidden?26 And if you will say [that] he is concerned with the blood and the opening comes of itself, [then the question arises:] Is the halachah27 according to R. Simeon who says: A thing which is not intended28 is allowed; or is the halachah according to R. Judah who says: A thing which is not intended is forbidden?29 And if you will say [that] the halachah is according to R. Judah [then the question arises], does he do damage in regard to the opening, or does he improve in regard to the opening?30 Some say:31 And if you will say that the blood is the result of a wound [then the question arises], is he concerned about the blood and it is forbidden,32 or is he concerned with his own pleasure, and it is allowed? And if you will say [that] he is concerned with his own pleasure and the blood comes out of itself,33 [then the question arises] is the halachah according to R. Judah or is the halachah according to R. Simeon? And if you will say [that] the halachah is according to R. Judah, [then the question arises,] does he do damage by [making] the wound, or does he improve by [making] the wound? And if you will say [that] he does damage by [making] the wound, [then the question arises,] with regard to one who does damage, is the halachah according to R. Judah,
Original footnotes renumbered.
- The finger is pointed like a peg.
- Lit., 'what is the reason?' I.e., what is the meaning of the question? With regard to what are the fingers of man like pegs?
- I.e., shall I say that the question is: Why are the fingers divided? They might have been joined together.
- Lit., 'for its thing.'
- The little finger.
- I.e., the distance from the little finger to the thumb of a spread hand.
- The finger next to the little finger.
- [H] the taking of a fistful of the meal-offering. v. Lev II, 2.
- The middle finger.
- The cubit is a measure equal to the distance from the elbow to the tip of the middle finger.
- The fourth from the little finger.
- And also for priestly service with the 'finger'; cf. Lev. IV, 6.
- The fifth from the little finger.
- V. Lev. VIII, 23, 24; XIV, 14, 17, 25, 28. We thus see that every finger has a definite purpose. They therefore had to be divided and function as separate fingers!
- Lit., 'what is the reason (that)?'
- Into the ear. He will thus close the ear and not hear the unworthy thing.
- Not only unworthy things. but even idle things a man should not hear, e.g tittle-tattle.
- Lit., 'of the limbs.' 'Because they are burnt first of (all) the organs' seems to have a figurative meaning. From hearing unworthy or idle things he may proceed to speak unworthy or idle things and then to do unworthy or idle things. The ear is thus the first organ to 'be burnt', to 'catch fire'. c.f. Prov. VI, 27-28. If. the English phrase, 'to burn one's fingers.'
- Lit., 'How is it?
- When the intercourse could not take place before Sabbath, (Tosaf.)
- And the intercourse would he allowed, since the blood flows out of its own accord, no wound having been made.
- Lit., 'or is it wounded?' And the intercourse would be forbidden.
- Lit., 'And if you should he able to say.'
- Is his aim to release it? Lit., 'is it the blood he requires?' [According to Tosaf.: In order to see whether she is a virgin.]
- Or is his aim to make an opening?
- It is forbidden to make an opening on Sabbath. [Such an act comes under the category of 'building'.]
- 'Adopted opinion', 'rule'.
- An act which is in itself forbidden but is the unintended though unavoidable result of an act which is permitted. Thus one may, according to R. Simeon, push a couch on the floor, on Sabbath, if one has not the intention to make a rut in the floor, although, as a matter of fact, such a rut is made as the unavoidable result of pushing the couch.
- R. Judah's view is opposed to that of R. Simeon; v. n. 4.
- Is the making of the opening considered to be to the advantage or disadvantage of the woman? If it is to her disadvantage it would he allowed even according to R. Judah. [Based on the principle that an act of damage does not constitute labour in regard to Sabbath. V. Shab. 106a.]
- Lit., 'there are who say', that the questions were with regard to the assumption that the blood is the result of a wound.
- To have the intercourse on Sabbath.
- The coming of the blood is therefore an unintended but unavoidable result of an act, the intended object of which is the pleasure.