R. Abbahu, quoting R. Eleazar, said: In none of the instances In the Torah requiring a quarter [of a log]3 does what is permitted combine with what is forbidden, with the exception of the quarter [of a log] of the nazirite, where the Torah uses the phrase 'soaked in'.4 What is the difference between R. Johanan5 and R. Eleazar? — It is that the former includes solid foods,6 the latter liquids only but no other things.
R. Eleazar said that there are ten quarters [of a log]7 and R. Kahana knew for a fact8 that five [involved] red [liquids]9 and five white.10 For the five red ones [there is the following mnemonic]:11 A nazirite and a celebrant of the passover who delivered judgment in the sanctuary and died. 'A nazirite' indicates the quarter [log] of wine [entailing a penalty] for the nazirite [who drinks it].12 'A celebrant of the passover' refers to the following dictum quoted by Rab Judah on behalf of Samuel viz: — Each of these four cups13 should contain sufficient [undiluted wine] to make a quarter of a log [of diluted wine].14 'Who delivered judgment' [refers to the law that] one who has partaken of a quarter of a log of wine must not render a decision.15 'In the sanctuary [refers to the law that a priest] who drinks a quarter of a log of wine and then enters the sanctuary renders himself liable to death penalty.16 'And they died' [indicates the following teaching]: For it has been taught, whence do we infer that a quarter of a log of blood taken from two corpses renders unclean the contents of a tent? Because it is said, Neither shall he go to any dead body.17
The five white [fluids are indicated in the following mnemonic]: The cake of a nazirite or a leper who were disqualified on the Sabbath. 'The cake' [signifies] the quarter of a log of oil for the cake;18 'of a nazirite', the quarter of a log of oil [that must be brought] by a nazirite;19 'or a leper,' the quarter of a log of water [that must be used] for a leper.20 'Disqualified' [indicates] what we have learnt: Other ritually defiled liquids render the body unfit21 if a quarter of a log [is partaken of].22 'On the Sabbath' [indicates] what we have learnt: For all other liquids [the legal quantity]23 is a quarter of a log, and for all waste liquids [the legal quantity] is a quarter of a log.
But is there no instance other than [the ten mentioned, requiring a quarter of a log?] There is surely the case: 'With a quarter [of a log of water] the hands of one person, and even of two may be washed [before food]'!24 Disputed cases are not included.25 But we have [also the following case]: He brought an earthenware phial and poured into it half a log of water from the laver.26 According to R. Judah it was only a quarter of a log'?27 — Disputed cases are not included.
But we have [also the following]: 'How much water must be poured [into the chamber-pot]?28 As little as one pleases. R. Zakkai said: It must be a quarter of a log'.29 — Disputed cases are not included.
WHILST THERE IS NO PENALTY UNLESS HE EATS AN OLIVE'S BULK OF GRAPES etc.:] The first Tanna1 does not put all the things forbidden a nazirite on the same footing as drinking,2 whereas R. Akiba, because of the verse nor eat fresh grapes nor dried,3 says that just as in eating an olive's bulk [entails a penalty], so for all the prohibitions4 an olive's bulk [is sufficient to entail a penalty].
THERE IS A SEPARATE PENALTY FOR WINE etc. Our Rabbis taught: [The verse,] 'Nor eat fresh grapes nor dried' indicates that there is a penalty for [eating] the one by itself, and a penalty for [eating] the other by itself.5 From here a rule may be derived applicable to all prohibitions of the Torah.6 Just as here where we have a single species [grapes] known by two different names [fresh and dried], each entails a distinct penalty, so wherever we find a single species known by two different names, each entails a penalty distinct from the other. In this way, new wine and grapes are included.7
Abaye said: For eating pressed-grapes [the nazirite] is scourged twice;8 For eating grape-stones he is scourged twice; for eating both pressed-grapes and grape-stones he is scourged three times. Raba9 said: He is scourged once only [in the first two cases] since we do not scourge for [breach of] the prohibition expressed in general terms.
R. Papa raised an objection: [It is taught] R. Eleazar said that a nazirite who drank wine all day long would be scourged once only. If, however, he was warned, 'Do not drink', and again 'Do not drink', [and so on], there would be a penalty for each [warning]. If he ate fresh grapes, dried grapes, pressed-grapes, grape-stones, and squeezed a cluster of grapes and drank [the liquor] he would be scourged five times.10 Now if [Abaye is right] he should be scourged six times, including once on account of 'He shall eat nothing [that is made of the grape-vine]'? — [Abaye replied:] He mentioned some and omitted others.11 But what other [count] is omitted, that the one referred to12 should have been omitted?13 — He omitted, He shall not break his word.14 Had this last, however, been the only one, it would not have been considered an omission,15 [as it could be argued that R. Eleazar] mentioned only [those prohibitions] that are not found elsewhere, whereas this one is found in connection with ordinary vows too.16
Rabina of Parazikia17 said to R. Ashi: But he has in any case omitted the intermediate portion of the grape!18 — But said R. Papa19 [in reply to the various arguments advanced]: Five is not actually mentioned [in the Baraitha].20 But [R. Papa]
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