GEMARA. And how much?4 — R. Eleazar said in Rab's name: That it may be roasted before sunset as the food of the son of Derusai.5 It was stated likewise: R. Assi said in R. Johanan's name: Whatever is as the food of the son of Derusai's not subject to [the interdict of] the cooking of Gentiles.6 It was taught: Hanina said: Whatever is as the food of the son of Derusai may be kept on the stove,7 though it is not swept [clear of the cinders] and besprinkled with ashes.8
BREAD MAY NOT BE PUT, etc. The scholars propounded: Does the BOTTOM [surface] mean the one by the oven, or perhaps BOTTOM means the one by the fire?9 — Come and hear: R. Eleazar said: There must be time for the surface adhering to the oven to form a crust.
THE PASSOVER SACRIFICE MAY BE LOWERED, [etc.]. What is the reason? — Because the members of the company are extremely careful.10 But otherwise, it would not [be permitted]? Yet a Master said: [With the flesh of) a kid, whether it [the oven] is daubed round or not, it is well?11 — There it is cut up, whereas here it is not cut up.12
AND THE FIRE IS LIGHTED WITH CHIPS, etc. Whence do we know this? — Said R. Huna: Ye shall kindle no fire throughout your habitations:13 [only] throughout your habitations you may not kindle, but you may kindle in the pile in the chamber of the Hearth. R. Hisda demurred: If so, even on the Sabbath too!14 Rather, said R. Hisda: The verse, when it comes, conies to permit [the burning of] limbs and the fat;15 while the priests are very particular.16
BUT IN THE COUNTRY, THERE MUST BE TIME FOR THE FIRE TO TAKE HOLD, etc. What is meant by 'their greater part?' — Rab said: the greater part of each [log]; and Samuel said: That it should not be said, Let us bring chips to place under them.17 R. Hiyya taught [a Baraitha which affords] support to Samuel: That the flame should ascend of its own accord, and not with the help of something else.18
As to a single log, Rab said: The greater part of its thickness;19 while others state, The greater part of its circumference. R. Papa observed: Therefore we require the greater part of both its thickness and its circumference. This is a controversy of Tannaim: R. Hiyya said: That the log may be rendered unfit for an artisan's work;20 R. Judah b. Bathyra said: That the fire should take hold on both sides.21 And though there is no proof of the matter, there is a hint thereof: the fire hath devoured both the ends of it, and the midst of it is burned; is it profitable for any work.22
And there was a fire in the ah23 burning before him,24 What is 'ah?' — Rab said, Willow-fire;25 while Samuel said: Logs kindled by willowfire. A certain man announced, who wants ahwawna? and it was found to be willows.
R. Huna said: Canes do not require the greater part,26 [but] if they are tied together, the greater part is required;27 kernels [of dates] do not require the greater part; but if they are put in bales they require the greater part. R. Hisda demurred: On the contrary, [separate] canes may fall apart,28 but if tied together they cannot fall apart; kernels can fall apart, but if placed in bales they cannot? It was stated likewise,
R. Kahana said: Canes tied together require the greater part; if not tied together, they do not require the greater part. Kernels require the greater part; if put in bales they do not.1
R. Joseph learned: Four fires do not require the greater part, [viz.] of pitch, sulphur, cheese,2 and grease.3 In a Baraitha it was taught: straw and rakings too.4 R. Johanan said: Babylonian woods do not require the greater part. R. Joseph demurred: To what does this refer? Shall we say, To chips?5 But if [concerning] a wick 'Ulla said, He who kindles must kindle the great part of what protrudes,6 is there a question of chips!7 Rather, said R. Joseph: [It refers to] the bark of cedar.8 Rami b. Abba said: [It refers to] dry twigs.
MISHNAH. WHEREWITH MAY WE KINDLE [THE SABBATH LIGHTS], AND WHEREWITH MAY WE NOT KINDLE THEM]?9 WE MAY NOT KINDLE [THEM] WITH LEKESH, HOSEN [TOW], KALLAK, A BAST WICK, A DESERT WICK, SEAWEED, ZEFETH [PITCH], SHA'AWAH [WAX], KIK OIL, OIL OF BURNING,10 TAIL FAT, OR TALLOW. NAHUM THE MEDE SAID: WE MAY KINDLE [THEM] WITH BOILED HELEB; BUT THE SAGES MAINTAIN: WHETHER BOILED OR NOT, YOU MAY NOT KINDLE THEREWITH.11
GEMARA. Lekesh is cedar bark. But cedar bark is simply wood!12 — It means the woolly substance [bast] within it.
NOR WITH HOSEN [TOW]. R. Joseph said: [That is,] hatcheled flax. Abaye demurred: But it is written, And the hason shall be as ne'oreth?13 Rather said Abaye: It is crushed but uncombed flax.
NOR WITH KALLAK. Samuel said: I asked all seafarers about it, and they told me that it is called kulka.14 R. Isaac b. Ze'ira said: Gushkera.15 Rabin and Abaye were sitting before Rabana16 Nehemiah the brother of the Resh Galutha.17 Seeing that he was wearing metaksa,18 Rabin said to Abaye, That is the kallak of which we learnt. We call it peranda silk,19 he answered him. An objection is raised: [Garments of] silk, kallak and corded [silk], are liable to fringes.20 This refutes it.21 Alternatively, silk is one thing and peranda silk is another.
NOR WITH A BAST WICK: [I.e.,] willow-bast. Rabin and Abaye were walking in the valley of Tamruritha,22 when they saw some willows. Said Rabin to Abaye, That is the idan [bast] of which we learnt. But that is simply wood, he objected. Thereupon he peeled it and showed him the wool-like substance within.
NOR WITH A DESERT WICK: Mullein.23
NOR WITH SEAWEED. What is this? Shall we say, The black moss of pits? But that is crumbly!24 Rather said R. Papa: it is the black fungus of ships. A Tanna taught: To these [enumerated in the Mishnah] were added [wicks] of wool and hair.25 And our Tanna? — Wool shrinks [and] hair smoulders.26
NOR WITH PITCH [ZEFETH]. ZEFETH is pitch; SHA'AWAH is wax. A Tanna taught: Thus far the unfitness of wicks [is taught]; from here onwards it is the unfitness of oils.27 But that is obvious? — It is necessary in respect to wax: you may say, It is not fit for wicks either; hence we are informed [otherwise].28
Rami b. Abin said: 'Itrona29 is the by-product of pitch; wax is the residue of honey.
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