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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah
R. Eleazar said: Thirty-six hours; it moved for six hours and stood still for twelve, it then moved for six and stood still for twelve so that the halt alone equalled a whole day. R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: Forty-eight; it moved for six and stood for twelve, it then moved for six and stood still for twenty-four, for Scripture says, and hasted not to go down about a whole day, which implies that the previous halt did not equal a whole day. Some report that it is the additional hours of daytime which are disputed. R. Joshua b. Levi said: They were twenty-four; it moved for six and stood for twelve, then moved for six and stood for twelve — its halt thus equalled a whole day; while R. Eleazar said: Thirty-six; it moved for six and stood for twelve, then moved for six and stood for twenty-four [which is meant by] and hasted not to go down about a whole day. R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: Forty-eight; it moved for six and stood for twenty-four, then moved for six and again stood for twenty-four; the standing still [at noon] equalled that of setting time; as the one at setting time equalled a whole day, so the standing still [in the midst of the heaven] equalled a whole day.
A Tanna taught:6 Just as the sun stood still for Joshua, so did the sun stand still for Moses and for Nakdimon b. Gorion. [As to the case of] Joshua, there are the scriptural verses; [that of] Nakdimon b. Gorion is a tradition;7 whence do we know about Moses? — It may be derived from the identical [expression] I will begin [used in the two cases]. Here is written, I will begin to put the dread of thee,8 and there, referring to Joshua, it is written, I will begin to magnify thee.9 R. Johanan10 said: It may be derived from the use of the identical word teth11 ['put'] [in both cases]. Here is written, I will begin to put the dread of thee,12 and there, concerning Joshua, it is written, In the day when the Lord put the Amorites.13 R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: You can detect it in the very wording of the verse itself, [The peoples that are under the whole heaven] who shall hear the report of thee, and shall tremble and be in anguish because of thee:14 When did they tremble and were in anguish because of Moses? When the sun stood still for him.
The question was asked: [Does not Scripture say in the case of Joshua] And there was no day like that before it or after it?15 [The answer given was,] You may explain this [to mean that] there was none that lasted as long as that one; or, if you wish, you may say it means that there were no hailstones [as in the case of Joshua], of which it is written, And it came to pass, as they fled from before Israel, while they were in the going down of Beth-Horon, that the Lord cast down great stones from heaven upon them unto Azeka and they died.16
And he bade them teach the Children of Judah [to handle] the bow, behold it is written in the Book of Jashar.17 Which is the Book of Jashar? — Said R. Hiyya b. Abba in the name of R. Johanan: It is the book of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob who are designated as righteous and of whom Scripture says, Let me die the death of the righteous and let my last end be like his.18 And where is this fact referred to?19 — Judah, thee shall thy brethren praise; thy hand shall be on the neck of thine enemies;20 what kind of fighting requires the aiming of the hand at the [enemy's neck]? Surely, archery. R. Eleazar said: It is the book of Deuteronomy, which is here called the Book of Jashar, because it contains the words And thou shalt do that which is Jashar ['right'] in the sight of the Lord.21 And where does it refer [to Judah's archery]? — With his hands he contended for himself:22 What kind of fighting requires both hands? Surely, archery. R. Samuel b. Nahmani said: It is the Book of Judges, which is here called the Book of Jashar, because it contains the verse, In those days there was no King in Israel; every man did that which was Jashar ['right'] in his own eyes.23 And where is [Judah's skill in archery] referred to in it? That the generations of the Children of Israel might know, to teach them war;24 now what kind of warfare requires teaching? Surely, archery. But how do we know that this verse refers to Judah? — From the scriptural verse, Who shall go up for us first against the Canaanites, to fight against them? And the Lord said, Judah shall go up.25
[These same Rabbis also discussed the following:] And the cook took up the thigh, and that which was upon it and set it before Saul.26 — What means, 'that which was upon it'? — R. Johanan [explained it to mean] 'the thigh and the tail': and what does that which was upon it mean? The thigh which is adjoined by the tail; while R. Eleazar said that the thigh and the breast [are here meant]: and what does 'that which was upon it' mean? The placing of the breast upon the thigh when these have to be formally waved.27 R. Samuel b. Nahmani, however, applied it to the leg and the cap; and what does 'that which was upon it' mean? The cap which is above the leg.
A WOMAN SHOULD NOT BE ALONE WITH IDOLATERS. To what circumstances [does this rule apply]? If to one idolater, then even in the case of an Israelite it would not be permitted? Have we not learnt, 'One man should not remain alone even with two women'?
‘Abodah Zarah 25bIt must therefore refer to three idolaters being present [which would be permissible in the case of Israelites].1 But would even this be permitted in the case of Israelites of loose manners? Have we not learnt: 'But one woman may be alone with two men', whereon Rab Judah commented: This only refers to well-mannered men, but as to loose-mannered ones, it is not permitted, even if they be ten; there is indeed the incident of ten men having carried an adulterous woman on a bier [for an immoral purpose]! — Our Mishnah refers to a case where the man's wife is present, and implies [that in the case of] an idolater his wife is no safeguard,2 though in the case of an Israelite his wife is a safeguard. But is there not, in any case, the fear of her being murdered? — Said R. Jeremiah: We are here dealing with a woman of high repute, so that he would be afraid of killing her.3 R. Idi replied: Every woman has her weapons on her.4 Wherein do these two differ? — In the case of a woman who has a high repute among men but not among women.5 [The following Baraitha] has been taught in agreement with the opinion of R. Idi b. Abin: A woman, even though she can always look after her safety, should not be alone with heathen, because they are suspected of lewdness.
NO MAN SHOULD BE ALONE WITH THEM. Our Rabbis taught: If a Jew happens to be overtaken by an idolater while on the road, he should let him walk on his right.6 R. Ishmael the son of R. Johanan the son of R. Johanan b. Berokah says: [If the heathen is armed] with a sword, he should be let to walk on the right; if with a stick on the left.7 If they are ascending or descending, let not the Israelite be on the lower level and the heathen on the higher, but the Israelite higher and the heathen lower; nor should the Israelite bend down in front of him, lest he smashes his skull. If the heathen asks him whither he is going, he should say towards a place beyond his actual destination,8 just as our father Jacob acted towards the wicked Esau; for Scripture says, Until I come unto my lord to Seir,9 while it records, And Jacob journeyed to Succoth.10 It once happened to some disciples of R. Akiba that while journeying to Chezib11 they were overtaken by robbers who asked them whither they were going. They replied, 'To Acco'.12 On reaching Chezib they stopped.13 The robbers then said to them, 'Whose disciples are you?' And they replied, 'The disciples of R. Akiba.' Said they, Happy are R. Akiba and his disciples, for no evil man has ever encountered them.
R. Manashi was once going
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