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Babylonian Talmud: Tractate ‘Abodah Zarah
MISHNAH. THE FOLLOWING ARE PROHIBITED AND RENDER PROHIBITED1 BY THE SMALLEST QUANTITY: [A CASK OF] YEN NESEK,2 AN IDOLATROUS OBJECT,3 SKINS OF ANIMALS WHICH HAVE HOLES OVER THE REGION OF THE HEART,4 AN OX WHICH HAD BEEN STONED,5 AN HEIFER WHOSE NECK WAS BROKEN,6 BIRDS BROUGHT AS AN OFFERING BY A LEPER,7 THE HAIR-OFFERING OF A NAZIRITE,8 THE FIRSTLING OF AN ASS,9 FLESH COOKED IN MILK,10 THE SCAPEGOAT,11 AND NON-CONSECRATED ANIMALS SLAUGHTERED IN THE TEMPLECOURT.12 BEHOLD THESE ARE PROHIBITED AND RENDER PROHIBITED BY THE SMALLEST QUANTITY.
GEMARA. On what basis does the Tanna make his enumeration? If he enumerates objects which are [customarily] numbered,13 then he should include slices of meat from an animal which had not been ritually slaughtered; if they are objects which may not be put to any use, then he should include leaven during Passover! — R. Hiyya b. Abba — another version is, R. Isaac the smith — said: The Tanna enumerates the objects to which both criteria apply, viz., they are customarily numbered and may not be put to any use.14 In that case he should include the nuts of Perek and the pomegranates of Baddan15 because they are customarily numbered and may not be put to any use! [The compiler of the Mishnah] treated of them elsewhere,16 [and he enumerated a list of which he stated:] Those which belong to 'orlah-fruit come within the law of 'orlah, and those which belong to mixed plantings of a vineyard come within the law of mixed plantings of a vineyard. Then he should include the loaves of a householder17 with reference to the law of leaven during Passover!18 — The teacher whom you have heard expressing this opinion is R. Akiba; and [the compiler of the Mishnah] has already stated there:19 R. Akiba adds the loaves of a householder.
BEHOLD THESE. What do these words intend to exclude? — To exclude things which are customarily numbered but are not prohibited for all use, or the things which are prohibited for all use but are not customarily numbered.20
MISHNAH. IF YEN NESEK FELL INTO A VAT, THE WHOLE OF IT IS PROHIBITED FOR ALL USE. R. SIMEON B. GAMALIEL SAYS: THE WHOLE OF IT MAY BE SOLD TO HEATHENS WITH THE EXCEPTION OF [A QUANTITY CORRESPONDING TO] THE VALUE OF THE YEN NESEK IN IT.
GEMARA. Rab said: The halachah agrees with R. Simeon b. Gamaliel when a cask [of yen nesek] has been mixed with other casks, but not when it is a matter of wine [which is nesek becoming mixed with other] wine. Samuel, on the other hand, said: Even when it is wine mixed with wine. Similarly said Rabbah b. Bar Hanah in the name of R. Johanan: Even when it is wine mixed with wine. Similarly said R. Samuel b. Nathan in the name of R. Hanina: Even when it is wine mixed with wine. Similarly said R. Nahman in the name of Rabbah b. Abbuha: Even when it is wine mixed with wine. R. Nahman said: In practice the rule to follow in connection with yen nesek is that when wine is mixed with wine it is prohibited and a cask mixed with casks is permitted;21 but with ordinary wine22 even when it is a matter of wine being mixed with wine it is permitted.23
‘Abodah Zarah 74b
MISHNAH. IF A HEATHEN COVERED A STONE WINE-PRESS WITH PITCH1 IT MAY BE SCOURED AND IS THEN CLEAN; BUT IF IT WAS OF WOOD, RABBI SAYS THAT IT MAY BE SCOURED2 AND THE SAGES SAY THAT HE MUST PEEL OFF THE PITCH.3 IF IT WAS OF EARTHENWARE, EVEN THOUGH HE PEELED OFF THE PITCH IT IS PROHIBITED.4
GEMARA. Raba said: [Scouring is necessary] only when he coated it with pitch,5 but not if he trod [his grapes] in it.6 This is obvious since the Mishnah stated: COVERED … WITH PITCH! — You might have said that the same law7 applied even if he trod them in it, and the reason why he stated the circumstance of coating with pitch is because he mentioned the customary practice.8 He accordingly informs us [that rinsing is sufficient if the heathen trod grapes in it]. Another version is: Raba said: [Scouring is necessary] only when he coated it with pitch, but if he trod [his grapes in a press which had been covered with pitch] scouring is insufficient.9 This is obvious, since the Mishnah stated: COVERED … WITH PITCH! — You might have said that the same law10 applied even when he trod them in it, and the reason why he stated the circumstance of coating with pitch is because he mentioned the customary practice. He accordingly informs us that [scouring suffices] only when he coated it with pitch but if he trod in it scouring is insufficient. As when a man came before R. Hiyya and said to him, 'Provide for me a man to purify my winepress.' [R. Hiyya] said to Rab, 'Go with him and see that there is no ground for complaint against me in the House of Study.'11 He went and noticed that [the sides of the press] were very smooth; so he said, 'Here it will surely be sufficient with scouring.' But as he proceeded [with his examination] he noticed a crack at the bottom and saw that it was full of wine; so he said, 'Here it will not be sufficient with scouring but it will have to be scraped.' That is what my uncle12 intended when he said to me, 'See that there is no ground for complaint against me in the House of Study.'
Our Rabbis taught: As for the winepress, ladle and funnel13 belonging to a heathen, Rabbi permits them after scouring, whereas the Sages prohibit them. Rabbi, however, admits that flasks14 belonging to a heathen are prohibited. What is the difference between one and the other? — In the latter he puts wine to be kept but not in the former.15 Should [the winepress, ladle or funnel] be of wood or stone he scours them,16 and if they had been covered with pitch they are prohibited.17 But we learnt: IF A HEATHEN COVERED A STONE WINEPRESS WITH PITCH IT MAY BE SCOURED AND IS THEN CLEAN! — Our Mishnah refers to when he had not trodden in it,18 and the quoted Baraitha to when he had trodden in it.19
The Master said, 'As for the winepress, ladle and funnel20 belonging to a heathen, Rabbi permits them after scouring, whereas the Sages prohibit them.' But we learnt: IF IT WAS OF EARTHENWARE, EVEN THOUGH HE PEELED OFF THE PITCH IT IS PROHIBITED! — Raba said: This last clause of our Mishnah gives the view of the Rabbis.21
Raba expounded: 'Scald the vat!'22 When Raba sent [empty] jars to Harpania23 he placed them mouth downwards [in sacks] the hem of which he sealed, being of the opinion that the Rabbis decreed against every utensil into which [wine] is put for keeping [by a heathen] even temporarily. With what does one scour them? — Rab said: With water; Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said: With ashes. When Rab said with water, [did he mean] with water and not with ashes; and when Rabbah b. Bar Hanah said with ashes [did he mean] with ashes and not with water! — Rather
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