also, the clasps in the loops1 looked like stars [set] in the sky.
Our Rabbis taught: The lower curtains [were made] of blue [wool], purple [wool]. crimson thread and fine linen,2 whilst the upper ones were of goats' [hair] manufacture; and greater wisdom [skill] is mentioned in connection with the upper than in connection with the lower. For whereas of the lower ones it is written, And all the women that were wise-hearted did spin with their hands;3 in reference to the upper ones it is written, And all the women whose heart stirred them up in wisdom spun the goats;4 and it was taught in R. Nehemiah's name: It was washed [direct] on the goats and spun on the goats.5
IF THERE ARE TWO BALCONIES, etc. Rab said in R. Hiyya's name: As for the waggons, beneath them, between them, and at their sides it was public ground. Abaye said: Between one waggon and another [as its side] there was [the space of] a full waggon. length. And how much was a waggon-length? five cubits. Why was it [this length] necessary: four and a half would have sufficed?6 — So that the boards should not press [against each other].7
Raba said: The sides of the waggon8 equalled the fit [internal] breadth of the waggon, and how much was the [internal] breadth of the waggon? Two cubits and a half.9 Why was this necessary: a cubit and a half would have sufficed?10 — In order that the boards should not jump about.11 Then as to what we have as an established fact that the path [width] of public ground must be sixteen cubits: since we learn it from the Tabernacle,12 surely [the public ground] of the Tabernacle was [only] fifteen?13 — There was an additional cubit where a Levite stood, so that if the boards slipped he would support them.
MISHNAH. AS FOR THE BANK OF A CISTERN,14 AND A ROCK, WHICH ARE TEN [HANDBREADTHS] HIGH AND FOUR IN BREATH,15 IF ONE REMOVES [AUGHT] FROM THEM OR PLACES [AUGHT] UPON THEM, HIS IS CULPABLE;16 IF LESS THAN THIS, HE IS NOT CULPABLE.
GEMARA. Why state, THE BANK OF A CISTERN, AND A ROCK: let him [the Tanna] state, 'A cistern and a rock'?17 [Hence] this supports R. Johanan, who said: A cistern together with the bank thereof combine to [give a height of] ten [handbreadths].18 It was taught likewise: As for a cistern In public ground ten [handbreadths] deep and four broad [square]. We may not draw [water] from it on the Sabbath,19
unless a wall ten handbreadths high is made around it;1 and one may not drink from it on the Sabbath unless he brings his head and the greater part of his body into it,2 and a cistern and its bank combine to [give a height of] ten.
R. Mordecai asked Rabbah: What of a pillar in the street, ten high and four broad, and one throws [an article] and it alights upon it? Do We say, Surely the removal is [effected] in transgression and the depositing is [effected] in transgression;3 or perhaps since it comes from a place of non-liability4 it is not [a culpable action]? — Said he to him, This is [treated in] our Mishnah. He [then] went and asked it of R. Joseph: Said he to him, This is [treated in] our Mishnah. He went and asked it of Abaye, Said he to him, This is [treated in] our Mishnah. 'You all spit with each other's spittle,'5 cried he to them: Do you not hold thus, they replied. Surely we learnt, IF ONE REMOVES [AUGHT] FROM THEM OR PLACES [AUGHT] UPON THEM, HE IS CULPABLE.6 But perhaps our Mishnah treats of a needle? he suggested to them! — It is impossible even for a needle not to be slightly raised. — It [the rock] may have a projecting point,7 or it [the needle] may lie in a cleft.8
R. Misha said, R. Johanan propounded: What of a wall in a street, ten high but not four broad, surrounding a karmelith9 and converting it [thereby] into private ground,10 and one throws [an article] and it alights on the top of it? Do we say, Since it is not four broad it is a place of non-liability; or perhaps, since it converts it into private ground it is as though it were [all] filled up?11 Said 'Ulla, [This may be solved] a fortiori: if it [the wall] serves as a partition for something else,12 how much more so for itself!13 This was stated too: R. Hiyya b. Ashi said in Rab's name, and thus said R. Isaac in R. Johanan's name: In the case of a wall in the street ten high and not four broad, surrounding a karmelith and converting it into private ground, he who throws [an article] which alights thereon is culpable: if it serves as a partition for something- else, how much more so for itself.
R. Johanan propounded: What of a pit nine [handbreadths deep] and one removes one segment from it and makes it up to ten;14 [do we say] the taking up of the object and the making of the partition come simultaneously, hence he is culpable; or is he not culpable? Now should you say, since the partition was not ten originally he is not liable: what of a pit ten [deep] and one lays the segment therein and [thus] diminishes it['s depth]? [Here] the depositing of the article and the removal of the partition come simultaneously: is he culpable or not? — You may solve it for him by his own [dictum]. For we learnt: if one throws [an article] four cubits on to a wall, — if above ten handbreadths, it is as though he throws it into the air; if below, it is as though lie throws it on to the ground; and he who throws [an article] four cubits along the ground is culpable. Now we discussed this: surely it does not stay there? And R. Johanan answered: This refers to a juicy cake of figs.15 Yet why so? Surely it diminishes the four cubits?16 — There he does not render it as nought;17 here he does render it as nought.18
Raba propounded: What if one throws a board and it alights upon poles?19 What does he ask? [The law where] the depositing of the article and the constituting of the partition come simultaneously? [but] that is R. Johanan's [problem]!-When does Raba ask? e.g.. if he throws a board with an article on top of it: what [then]? [Do we say], Since they come simultaneously, it is like the depositing of the article and the making of a partition [at the same time];20 or perhaps, since it is impossible for it [the article] not to be slightly raised and then alight,21 it is like the making of a partition and the [subsequent] depositing of an article?22 The question stands over.
Raba said: I am certain, water [lying] upon water, that is its [natural] rest; a nut upon water,
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